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STUDY OF THE ERYTHROCYTES ADSORPTIVE TRANSPORT FUNCTION OF LAKE FROG (R. RIDIBUNDA L.), STEPPE TORTOISE (AGRONEMYS OF HORSFEELDII) AND ROCK PIGEON (COLUMBA OF lIVIA) WITHIN THE STANDARD AND UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF HYPOXIA

E-mail
Kankozha M.K.   
11.10.2010 .

The Kazakh National Medical University named after Asfendiyarov S.D. (Almaty, Republic Kazakhstan)

" " " , " - 1 - 4. - - 2010.

   

The ability to support the specific level of oxygen in the organism is the most important evolutionary factor of the development of vertebrates. Physiological systems were developed in order to guarantee optimum oxygen saturation of all cells in the organism [1]. 
At present shown that akaryote erythrocytes of mammals (biconcave disk) actively pump through themselves plasma and precipitate on their surface and inside themselves the components of the plasma of blood besides gas transport function [2,3]. However, the erythrocytes adsorptive- transport functions of other phylogenetic groups of animals are not studied.
The purpose of this investigation is study of adsorptive-transport function of the erythrocytes of Lake Frog (R.ridibunda L.), steppe tortoise (Agronemys of horsfeeldii) and rock pigeon (Columba of livia) within the standard and under the conditions of hypoxia.

Materials and methods

Animals were divided into 2 groups: the 1st group – control group, and for animals of the 2nd group was invented the model of hypoxia. 
Blood was taken in centrifuged tubes with free flow mixing it with an anticoagulant (heparin) and slightly shaking (without foaming).
Blood was centrifuged (TLN-2) for 5 minutes at 1500 rpm in order to separate plasma and erythrocyte sediment from received blood. Then plasma was selected for consequent study, erythrocytic mass and 3% solution of sodium chloride were cautiously and thoroughly mixed in the ratio 1:3. After that suspension was again centrifuged at 1500 rpm for 5 minutes. Then supernatant was picked and studied for a content of protein, albumen, cholesterol, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase.
Indices led to the unit of erythrocytic mass: all obtained indices multiplied by 3. A quantity of adsorbed organic substances on the membrane expressed like concentration in plasma. 
Hematologic indices were defined by conventional unified way and on apparatus “Automatic biochemical analyzer” [4, 5, and 6]. 
Static processing has been done on computer. The criteria of Student t - was significant at P <0.05.

Results and discussions

A study of total protein in supernatant of erythrocytes showed that in lake frog the level reliably was reduced 1,4, in steppe tortoise 1,3 and in rock pigeon 1,2 in comparison with the intact (table 1).
However, the level of albumin with hypoxia firmly increases in lake frog 1,5, in steppe tortoise 1,1 and in rock pigeon 1,3.
The content of the cholesterol in supernatant which was obtained from the erythrocyte of lake frog and steppe tortoise, firmly decreased 2,3 in comparison with the control. In this case, in supernatant of the erythrocytes of rock pigeon, the cholesterol grew 1,4.
Triglycerides in supernatant of the erythrocytes of the animals, subjected to hypoxia firmly decreased: in lake frog 2,6 times, steppe tortoise 2.4 times and rock pigeon 1,1 times in comparison with the intact.
The level of alkaline phosphatase in supernatant of erythrocytes of lake frog accurately was reduced 1,2, in steppe tortoise 1,3. However, in rock pigeon the content of alkaline phosphatase increased 1,1.

 Table 1.  The level of glucose, total protein, albumen, cholesterol, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase in supernatant of erythrocytes of lake frog (R.ridibunda L.), steppe tortoise (Agronemys of horsfeeldii) and rock pigeon (Columba of livia) within the standard and under the conditions of hypoxia (M±m).

 

The indices

Species of the animals

Lake frog

Steppe tortoise

Rock pigeon

Intact

Hypoxia

Intact

Hypoxia

Intact

Hypoxia

Glucose

(mmole/l)

0,96±0,03

0,84±0,03*

1,05±0,01

0,93±0,01*

3,12±0,09

4,35±0,06*

Total protein (g/l)

2,82±0,06

1,98±0,03*

6,93±0,03

5,28±0,15*

12,3±0,21

10,71±0,15*

Albumen

(g/l)

1,53±0,01

2,22±0,09*

2,91±0,06

3,15±0,01*

4,02±0,06

5,34±0,09*

Cholesterol  (mmole/l)

0,81±0,03

0,36±0,009*

1,23±0,12

0,54±0,02*

1,26±0,09

1,80±0,12*

Triglycerides (mmole/l)

0,39±0,01

0,15±0,01*

0,51±0,12

0,21±0,01*

0,63±0,02

0,57±0,01*

Alkaline phosphatase (un/l)

16,92±0,06

14,10±0,03*

22,20±0,06

17,73±0,06*

27,51±0,03

29,58±0,09*

 Note:* - ≤0, 05, in comparison with control.

Thus the content of protein and triglycerides in supernatant from the surface of erythrocytes of lake frog, steppe tortoise and rock pigeon decreases under the conditions of hypoxia. In supernatant of erythrocytes of rock pigeon increases the glucose, albumin, cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase in comparison with control. It is connected with the fact that the birds have an intensive metabolism in comparison with poikilothermal animals. 
Thus an adsorptive-transport function of erythrocytes in the phylogenetic aspect was studied for the first time.
As a whole, animals which are located on the lowest steps of evolutionary development (frogs) are more resistant to the action of hypoxia, than animals that located on the higher steps of evolutionary development (pigeons), which is connected with the genetically fixed reactivity of organism. 
It is connected with the smaller dependence of metabolic processes which take place in the tissues of frog, on the oxygen content in the environment.

Literature:

1. Rolfe D.F., Brown G.C. Cellular energy utilization and molecular origin of standard metabolic rate in mammals //Physiol. Rev. -1997. - Vol. 77. – .731–758.
2. Gareev R.A. «The second function of erythrocytes». Collection of the scientific works of the international conference, dedicated to the 150- anniversary of the institute of physiology of Pavlov I.P.- S-Petersburg. 1999 year, pages 25-27
3.  Kidalov V.N. The book edited by Hadartsev A.A. «Systemic analysis, control and information process in biology and medicine». Publishing house of Tula State University, 2000, pages 92-115.
4. Gareev R.A., Beklemishev I.B., Murzamadiyeva A.A.  «Study methods of haematolymphoid metabolism». Alma Ata, Science, 1991. p.135
5. International guiding principles for biomedical research involving animals. Geneva: Council for international organizations of medical sciences, 1985. - P. 187-195.
6. Zverkova E.E. «Blood supply of myocardium and resistance of organism to hypoxia with the trainings hypoxic-hypercapnic exposures». Alma-Ata, 1982. 

( 12.04.2011 . )
 

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