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ECOLOGICAL AND HYGIENIC CONDITION OF AMBIENT AIR AND SOILS, BRATSK

E-mail
Nikiforov V.A., Pertseva T.G., Prokhorenko E.A., Starkov L.V., Sharov N.V., Nikiforov A.A.   
15.02.2011 .

GOU VPO "Bratsk State University" (Bratsk)

" " " " - 3 - 1. - - 2011.

 
Industrial development of Siberia contributed to the creation on its territory, areas with adverse environmental conditions. Bratsk city of the territory with the unfavorable environmental conditions. According to the State Ecological Expertise of 4.23.1993, the territory of Bratsk recognized as a zone of ecological emergency. SER solutions indicated that a significant proportion of the population exposed to the harmful effects of man-made factors.
The city is located in the heart of the East-Siberian region and is a major industrial hub of the Russian Federation. The territory of the city is represented by the Central and Padunskim areas.
Air quality in residential areas inhabited areas remains a priority for assessment of the human environment. The degree of air pollution is a major factor affecting the health of the population. State of atmospheric air in the city of Bratsk is due release in the atmosphere the pollutants from both stationary sources and from the means of transport.
The main air pollutants are: OAO Rusal Bratsk, thermal power plant (HPP-6 branch of Irkutskenergo, "Northern Heating Networks sites number 1 and number 2), OJSC Ilim Group branch in Bratsk (formerly JSC Pulp and Paper Mill "). Their contribution to total emissions of air pollutants from stationary sources was 74.79, 9.0 and 3.61% respectively.
The greatest amount of specific pollutants enter the atmosphere from sources of non-ferrous metallurgy (resinous substance, solid fluorides, hydrogen fluoride), pulp and paper industry (methyl mercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, turpentine, formaldehyde). Very high levels of pollution due to high content of formaldehyde in ambient air, carbon disulfide, benzo (a) pyrene, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen fluoride. The most contaminated is a central part of the city.
It should be noted that the physical and geographical factors (the complex rugged terrain), climatic factors (harsh continental climate, low wind speed, frequent and powerful air temperature inversions, a small number and uneven distribution of rainfall throughout the year) and physical modification of natural environment (the creation of the Bratsk Reservoir) near the city of Bratsk, do not provide rapid dispersion of harmful substances and contribute to increased air pollution. For example, meteorological parameters of air pollution is very high (V zone on the PAP), the potential for self-purification of the atmosphere on most of the average annual values of meteorological parameters is assessed as low or very low.
Statistical analysis of Bratsk hydrometiorogical centre's data from 2001 till 2007 years from six research stationary posts was shown that maxi concentrations exceeds maximum possible concentrations (MPC) by a nitrous oxide, the carbons oxide, the sulphuretled hydrogen, the hydrogen fluoride, the formaldehyde and methylmercapten .
The tendency of increase of average annual the hydrogen fluoride's concentrations is observed. The average annual of the suphur's dioxide concentration corresponds to MPC, though the concentration in the Padun area is lower than in Central area.
The annual average concentration of carbon's oxide in Padun area is lower, than MPC.
 The carbon's oxide concentration in Central area is more than in Padun area in 125 times and it's reduced to 2,5 mg/m3 by 2006 year.
As for a nitrious oxide's concentration it increases constantly and by 2005 year it's reduced to 0,125 mg/m3.
The sulphuretted hydrogen's concentration was reduced to 0,002 mg/m3 by 2002 year and was increased to 0,005 mg/m3 by 2005 year in the Central Area.
In the Padun area the sulphuretted hydrogen's concentration is on low level and doesn't exceed MPC.
The methylmercaptan's concentration increased every year and it has reached 0,000153 mg/m3 by 2006 year in the Central and the Padun areas and it exceeds MPC in 1,53 times. In the Central area the formaldehyde's concentration exceeds MPC.
High levels of air pollution in hydrogen fluoride, phenol, sulfur dioxide and benzo (a) pyrene, are found in cold seasons. Ambient air pollution and oxides of nitrogen dioxide observed in the summer months, that is connected with forest fires. Ambient air pollution particulate matter, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, during the year is on one level. Air pollution, fluoride and carbon monoxide takes place only in certain months of the year, pollution, chlorine air in residential areas of the city is not registered [NN Yushkov, AS Gaskov 2004].
Atmospheric pollution by benzo (a) pyrene has a distinct character - throughout the year, the concentration of the substance above the MPC. Thus, the average concentration in air of the Central District reach 5.6 MAC, the Right Bank district - 2,0 MPC Padunskogo District - 1,8 MPC. According to the center of sanitary-epidemiological surveillance also experiencing higher than acceptable concentrations of benzo (a) pyrene in the air until 7 MAC in 2000. and up to 4.5 MPC - in 2006 [NN Yushkov, AS Gaskov 2004].
In 2008, the average concentration exceeded the permissible limits: for formaldehyde in 9 times, and carbon disulfide in 7,8 times, benzo (a) pyrene 4 times, nitrogen dioxide in 2,8 times, hydrogen fluoride in 1,2 times, suspended solids and nitric oxide in 1,1 times. Maximum concentrations were recorded: on benzo (a) pyrene 10 MPC, hydrogen sulfide, 7.9 MAC, carbon disulfide, formaldehyde 4.9 MPC 3.8 MPC hydrogen fluoride, nitrogen dioxide 3.7 MAC, solid soluble fluoride 2.3 MAC, suspended solids 2.2 MAC, carbon monoxide 2 MPC. Sulfur dioxide, benzene, xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, methyl mercaptan and defined heavy metals did not exceed the MAC [E. KUCHMENKO, TA Markov et al, 2009].
During the period 2004-2008. average concentrations of suspended solids dioxide and nitrogen oxide, solid fluorides, iron increased. The level of pollution relative to 2004. increased by 28%.
Our analysis of the averages of maximum concentrations for the period 1995-2005. testified that the content of suspended solids exceeding the maximum single MAC in 1,2 times; nitrogen dioxide by 7 times, 47 times of methyl mercaptan, carbon disulfide, 2 times; hydrogen fluoride in 1,7 times; formaldehyde - a factor of 2. Priority pollutants for the entire study period in Bratsk were: methyl mercaptan (MPC in 94% of grab samples), benzo (a) pyrene (92%), nitrogen dioxide (16%), carbon disulfide (16%). In general, the reduction of emissions from stationary sources has not led to the expected level of reduction of air pollution.
During the period 1995-2000. and 2001-2005. priority for the deposit of the total non-carcinogenic hazard index effects are in the Central District - carbon disulfide (HQ 5,75-4,35, respectively), nitrogen dioxide (HQ 2,8-3,03), solid fluorides (HQ 1,58-0, 35), hydrogen fluoride (HQ 0,19-0,55), to a lesser extent sulfur oxide (HQ 0,07-0,06) and carbon monoxide (HQ 0,14-0,42); Padunskom in the area - dioxide nitrogen (HQ 1,87-1,78), solid fluorides (HQ 0,6-0,50), to a lesser extent - sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide and hydrogen fluoride. Thus, in accordance with the criteria of hygienic assessment for the period 1995-2005. air pollution in the central region is evaluated as an emergency, and in Padunskom near as strong.
Soil Bratsk represented by the following basic types: sod-podzolic, podzolic, prairie, meadow and marsh. Soils are thin, detrital, with poorly developed genetic horizons. Presented mainly sod-podzolic heavy - loamy residual-calcareous soils. Humus horizon has light color, its capacity varies from 3 to 10 cm, the humus content varies from 3 to 6% and decreases rapidly with depth, making the next horizon is only 0,2-0,5%. In the group composition of humus fulvic acids predominate. Fulvic acid - a light-colored humic substances remaining after the precipitation of humic acids.
The upper horizons are depleted polugornymi oxides and strongly enriched in silica. Reaction throughout the profile acidic pH of the saline suspension in the range 3,3-4,3. Marginal sod-podzolic soils need lime, fertilizer and trace elements, as well as events that activate biological processes.
In texture are the most common loamy soil, usually clay texture with the inclusion of detrital material. On the terraces of the hills are usually thin, with the inclusion of rubble almost from the surface. Freezing-meadow and permafrost-marsh soils are rare in the river valleys and hollows. Peated wet soils also occur rarely on the gentle slopes of northern exposure. Peat and peat raw and wet soils are located in river valleys and streams in the lower slopes. Soil erosion is weak.
Condition of the soil is of great importance as a mode of transmission of soil-transmitted helminths and as a source of trace elements and toxic substances for plant products. In our study we did not consider these two very important aspects that shape the health of the population (especially children). We note only that the sedimentation of chemicals from the air led to their accumulation in the soil of residential areas.
Fraternal ITF conducts annual monitoring of precipitation of fluoride, since they are the priority pollutants of soil of the city.
In soils of the residential areas of Bratsk contaminant-specific aluminum production in quantities greater than background levels: lead, nickel, manganese, chromium, vanadium, zinc, molybdenum, copper and others. However, fluorine compounds are priority pollutants of soil Bratsk, so in the future will describe and assess the impact on public health only fluoride. Fraternal ITF conducts annual monitoring of fluoride fallout, sampling is carried out at four points located in the north (C) and northeast (NE) directions at a distance of 2-30 km from the smelter (BrAZ). Samples are taken from horizons 0-5, 5-10 cm, significant differences in the layers is observed [GOST 4.4.02-84. The Nature Conservancy. Soil. Methods of selecting and preparing soil samples for chemical, bacteriological and helminthological analysis]. Pollution assessment conducted in accordance with the GN 2.7.2041-06 "maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in the soil" [Maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of chemicals in soil: GN 2.1.7.2040-06: 04/01/2006 introduced. - Moscow: Publishing House of Standards, 2006].
At a distance from the plant soil pollution fluoride decreases. The concentration of fluoride in soil Bratsk average for years 1985-2005. is 726 mg / kg at 2 km from the pollution source. 530 mg / kg - 12 km from the industrial area, 276 mg / kg - 30 km. The soil is the subject of the environment, capable kumulirovat and transform harmful substances. Statistically confirmed trend towards accumulation of the pollutant in the study period, especially pronounced in the most polluted area (R = 0,68, p <0,05). At a distance of more than 30 km from the smelter as a result of environmental measures is a reduction in total content of fluorine (R = 0,2, p <0,05). Of particular danger may be the accumulation of pollutants in arable soils. It was established that the content of fluoride in soil agro-industrial complex, located 8 km from BrAZ, an average of 516 mg / kg.
Soil pollution residential areas may lead to receipt of the impurity in the human body. Daily intake of fluoride from the soil in Bratsk for adults on average for the period from 1985 to 2005. estimated at 0.4 mg / kg / day, which equals 19% of the required average daily dose of fluoride for children - 1 mg / kg-day (67% of the required average daily dose of fluoride for children). The highest dose received characteristic of the village, located in the vicinity of emission sources, for adults integral dose received fluoride from the soil is 0.6 mg / kg-day for children - 1.3 mg / kg-day. At a distance of 8-20 km from the source of contamination risk to the public had no significant differences in the adult organism comes from the soil 0.4 mg / kg-day of fluoride in the child's body - 0,9 mg / kg-day. The lowest dose of receipt of fluoride in the body are available for people living in remote parts of the city: for adults, they account for 0.2 mg / kg-day (10% of the required average daily dose) for children - 0.5 mg / kg-day (33%) .
At present, remains an urgent problem of rehabilitation of areas of concern among the key indicators of which are high risks of ill health.
The risk profile of non-carcinogenic effects performed by comparing exposure levels with the reference (safe) to the health of doses based on the calculation of the risk [P 2.1.10.1920-04. Guidelines for assessing risk to human health effects of chemicals that pollute the environment.].
Analysis of health risk, potentially exposed to emissions from the Bratsk aluminum plant, is produced on the basis of calculation of the total fluorine in the period 1995-2005. for different population groups. In the period from 1995 to 2005. set to increase in the risk for the Central District for the adult population in 1,2 times; on Padunskomu region in 1,7 times. For a child population over the period increase in the risk of 1,2 times for the Central District and the reduction of this index in 1,1 times for Padunskogo area.
The total dose, dose component of income fluoride from air, drinking water, the soil is 1.7 ppm.
It is known that the target the impact of fluoride is in the first place, the bone tissue. The duration and degree of pollution levels cause disturbances of formation of the locomotor system [Verihov BV, Ustinov, O., Zaitsev, NV Epidemiological aspects of the study of musculoskeletal disease in children (for example, the Perm region). / Hygiene and Sanitation. - 2007. - 3. - P.58-60.]. According to Kuvinovoy VN [Kuvina, VN Environmentally-caused pathology of the locomotor system in children in Eastern Siberia / VN Kuvina. - Irkutsk: Irkutsk Univ Press, 1991. - 236.], The beginning of exposure at different stages of ontogeny and its intensity cause developmental disorders in the form of congenital, systemic or dysplastic pathology. The authors of [Determining the relationship between air pollution and fluoride content of fluoride in the body / M. Savchenko, NN Yushkov, EL Goreva et al prosperous living environment - a pledge of public health: scientific. tr. FNU hygiene them. DF Erisman. - Voronezh, 2002. - S. 285 - 290.] Characterized the causal link between air pollution and the hydrogen fluoride content of fluoride ion in bone tissue, teeth and set on the basis of correlation (correlation coefficient 0.91), a direct relationship. In this regard, an assessment of the relative risk (RR) disease of the musculoskeletal system with the determination of etiological fraction (EF). Established that in a period marked by the highest level of income of fluorides in the environment of Bratsk coefficient of relative risk was highest (RR = 2,2, c ² = 36,7, p <0,05), and etiologic fraction as high as 48 %. In the past five years, when the concentration of fluoride in atmospheric decreased by 1,5-2 times the risk of diseases of the musculoskeletal system decreased slightly (RR = 1,8, c ² = 32,3, p <0,05; EF = 36 %).
To confirm the chemical load on the population of Bratsk with our participation on the basis of the laboratory of physicochemical methods for studying the AF Institute of Occupational Medicine and Human Ecology (Dr. A. Rozhanskiœ, PhD Zhurba O. MM) analysis of the content in the hair the most significant for the region of the toxicant - fluoride. Selecting indicators for the exposure is associated with several causes. First, the ability to accumulate toxicants in their hair, the study of which is preferable to other biosubstrates in connection with the desire not to use invasive techniques for the survey. Secondly, the toxicological characteristics of materials: fluorine accumulates in the body and cause chronic toxicity, even at relatively low content in the environment. Established that for the residents of Bratsk increasingly characterized by the accumulation of fluorine-containing compounds, as compared with residents of other localities (Table 1). And depending on the place of residence in the city of Bratsk is also dependent on the accumulation of the toxicant.
Students born in the Central District of fluoride concentration in hair was 97 ± 3,2 mg-kg, which is 2 times higher than that of the inhabitants of the area and Padunskogo 9 times than the visiting students. In addition, it is interesting to note that increases with age fluorine content in the hair may be due to its cumulation in the body and constant circulation.

Table 1

The content of toxicants in hair (mg / kg)

 

Fluoride, von 10-200

Children aged 4-7 years

Central District

113,4 ± 6,7 (37,2)

Padunsky district

20 ± 1,1 (11,6) ***

Students aged 18-20 years

Central District

97 ± 3,2 (91,2) *

Padunsky District

44 ± 2,3 (39,8)

Total residents Bratsk

64 ± 2,9 (86,8) **

Came from other parts

11 ± 0,8 (7,3)

Notes:

* - Differences are significant between the groups of residents of the Central District and District Padunskogo

**- Differences are significant between the groups of residents of the city of Bratsk, and came from other areas

*** - The differences are significant between the age groups

In brackets () indicate standard deviation from the arithmetic mean

Proportion of individuals with a high fluorine content in the hair is 12% of those surveyed. As an acceptable level accepted fluoride content in the hair in an amount 150mkg / g [list of priority indicators to identify changes in the health of the child population in the harmful effects of some chemical factors of the habitat / MR utv.14.11 .. 1999 / / health and environmental environment. - M.: 2002. - P.139-300.]. Confirmation of the adverse effects of fluoride on the organism is to identify those with the fluorine content in the hair above 100mkg/kg reduced the amount of hemoglobin in the blood (less than 115mg / l), leukopenia. These signs suggested as criteria for fluoride exposure.
Thus, when analyzing the environmental and hygienic environment in Bratsk revealed that the industrial development of the city led to a long-term anthropogenic load on the territory. The environment is polluted cities highly toxic, multi-component emissions. The most heavily modified the composition of air containing impurities which are of high risk carcinogenic, non-specific effects among populations.
The data obtained show that the total emission of harmful substances into the air situation in the city of Bratsk can be assessed as unfavorable for the dispersion of emissions from low self-purification capacity for technological impact.
High risks to human health associated with chronic inhalation exposure of the complex substances, among which are a priority sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon disulfide, solid fluorides, hydrogen fluoride.
In accordance with the criteria of hygienic assessment for the period 1995-2005. air pollution in the central region is evaluated as an emergency, and in Padunskom area as a strong indicator of the overall integral, in terms of summarizing the content of substances with the general toxic and irritating, but in general area of the city can be attributed to the zone of ecological emergency, in connection with this, environmental protection measures should be aimed at reducing the concentrations of sulfur-containing compounds, benzo (a) pyrene, and hygiene - for high-performance issues of diagnosis and prevention.

( 12.04.2011 . )
 

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